This category covers nine extreme mood conditions, such as being chronically elated (manic) or morbidly depressed. Typical of the distinctions made among mood disorders is major depression, single episode, in which five of the following symptoms are constant for at least two weeks: depressed mood, loss of interest in daily activities, significant weight loss or gain, insomnia at night and sleepiness during the day, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness, and thoughts of death. DSM-III-R notes that this cluster of symptoms is not considered a normal reaction to the death of a loved one. At another extreme of mood is the manic episode, a distinct period of abnormally intense emotions with at least three of the following symptoms: inflated self-esteem, decreased need for sleep, pressure to keep talking, and excessive involvement in pleasurable activities, such as buying spree. In a manic episode, a person is unable to work and socialize normally.


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